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dc.contributor.advisorRoa Prada, Sebastiánspa
dc.contributor.authorRangel Vera, Jorge Eliecerspa
dc.date.accessioned2020-06-26T19:45:24Z
dc.date.available2020-06-26T19:45:24Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12749/1601
dc.description.abstractLas vértebras y los discos intervertebrales permiten la flexibilidad de la columna y actúan como amortiguadores durante las actividades diarias, dada la elevada incidencia de lesiones en la espalda, nace la idea de crear una herramienta de soporte para la medicina y la fisioterapia, la cual sirva como modelo guía para diagnosticar lesiones lumbares. Por medio de análisis por elementos finitos de acuerdo a cargas específicas y a una postura determinada, se puede analizar el comportamiento que tienen las vértebras lumbares y así prever una lesión.spa
dc.description.tableofcontentsDEDICATORIA ..................................................................................................... 3 AGRADECIMIENTOS .......................................................................................... 4 CONTENIDO ........................................................................................................ 5 TABLA DE ILUSTRACIONES .............................................................................. 8 LISTADO DE TABLAS ....................................................................................... 11 1. OBJETIVOS................................................................................................. 12 1.1. OBJETIVO GENERAL ........................................................................................................12 1.2. OBJETIVOS ESPECÍFICOS .................................................................................................12 2. PLANTEAMIENTO DEL PROBLEMA .......................................................... 13 3. ANTECEDENTES ........................................................................................ 14 4. ESTADO DEL ARTE .................................................................................... 15 4.1. VÉRTEBRAS. ....................................................................................................................15 4.2. DISCOS INTERVERTEBRALES. ..........................................................................................18 4.3. MÚSCULOS LUMBARES ..................................................................................................19 4.4. MODELADO DE HUESO UTILIZANDO ELEMENTOS FINITOS ............................................22 4.5. CARGAS ..........................................................................................................................23 4.6. PROPIEDADES FÍSICAS DE LOS MATERIALES. ..................................................................26 5. MARCO TEÓRICO ...................................................................................... 28 5.1. PESO CORPORAL .............................................................................................................28 5.2. COLUMNA VERTEBRAL. ..................................................................................................28 5.3. PROPIEDADES BIOMECÁNICAS DE LAS ESTRUCTURAS VERTEBRALES ............................29 5.4. DISCO INTERVERTEBRAL .................................................................................................30 5.5. VÉRTEBRA .......................................................................................................................31 5.6. CUERPO VERTEBRAL .......................................................................................................32 5.7. APÓFISIS ARTICULARES...................................................................................................32 5.8. ISTMO Y PEDÍCULOS .......................................................................................................32 5.9. MÚSCULOS LUMBARES ..................................................................................................33 5.9.1. MÚSCULO DORSAL ANCHO ....................................................................................33 5.9.2. MÚSCULO CUADRADO LUMBAR ............................................................................34 5.9.3. MÚSCULO MULTÍFIDO ............................................................................................34 5.10. BIOMECÁNICA DE LA COLUMNA VERTEBRAL .................................................................35 5.10.1. ESFUERZO TENSIONAL ............................................................................................37 5.10.2. MECÁNICA DE LA COLUMNA VERTEBRAL. ..............................................................43 5.10.3. MODELAMIENTO DE TEJIDO BIOLÓGICO........................................................................45 5.10.4. CARACTERIZACIÓN MECANICÁNICA DEL HUESO ....................................................49 5.11. LESIONES LUMBARES .....................................................................................................58 5.11.1. DEGENERACIÓN DEL DISCO INTERVERTEBRAL .......................................................59 5.11.2. ENVEJECIMIENTO DE LOS DISCOS INTERVERTEBRALES ..........................................60 5.11.3. ESCOLIOSIS .............................................................................................................61 5.11.4. ESPONDILOLISTESIS ................................................................................................61 5.11.5. ESPONDILÓLISIS ......................................................................................................62 5.11.6. ESTENOSIS ESPINAL ................................................................................................63 5.11.7. ESPINA BÍFIDA ........................................................................................................63 5.11.8. SÍNDROME DEL PIRAMIDAL ....................................................................................64 5.11.9. DISCO ROTO ...........................................................................................................64 5.12. TEORÍA DE FALLA ............................................................................................................65 5.12.1. ENERGÍA DE DISTORSIÓN MÁXIMA ........................................................................65 6. DISEÑO METODOLÓGICO ......................................................................... 67 6.1. RECOPILACIÓN INFORMACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA. ............................................................67 6.2. DISEÑO CAD DE LAS VÉRTEBRAS LUMBARES. .................................................................67 6.3. ANÁLISIS POR ELEMENTOS FINITOS. ..............................................................................67 6.4. RECOPILACIÓN Y VALIDACIÓN DE LOS RESULTADOS. .....................................................68 6.5. DESARROLLO DE LA INTERFAZ GRÁFICA. ........................................................................68 6.6. DIFUSIÓN DE RESULTADOS.............................................................................................68 7. RESULTADOS ............................................................................................ 69 7.1. DISEÑO CAD ...................................................................................................................69 7.2. ANÁLISIS POR ELEMENTOS FINITOS ...............................................................................70 7.3. INTERFAZ GRÁFICA .........................................................................................................71 7.4. RESUMEN RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES ............................................................................72 8. VALIDACIÓN ............................................................................................... 73 8.1. VALIDACIÓN BAJO FLEXIÓN ............................................................................................74 8.2. VALIDACIÓN BAJO EXTENSIÓN .......................................................................................78 9. CONCLUSIONES ........................................................................................ 79 10. BIBLIOGRAFÍA ............................................................................................ 82 11. ANEXOS ...................................................................................................... 87spa
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dc.language.isospaspa
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/co/*
dc.titleDiseño de una interfaz gráfica para el análisis por elementos finitos de la respuesta de dos vértebras lumbares sometidas a carga combinadaspa
dc.title.translatedDesign of a graphical interface for finite element analysis of the response of two lumbar vertebrae under combined loadeng
dc.degree.nameIngeniero Mecatrónicospa
dc.coverageBucaramanga (Colombia)spa
dc.publisher.grantorUniversidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga UNABspa
dc.rights.localAbierto (Texto Completo)spa
dc.publisher.facultyFacultad Ingenieríaspa
dc.publisher.programPregrado Ingeniería Mecatrónicaspa
dc.description.degreelevelPregradospa
dc.type.driverinfo:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis
dc.type.localTrabajo de Gradospa
dc.type.coarhttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_7a1f
dc.subject.keywordsMechatronic Engineeringeng
dc.subject.keywordsFinite element methodseng
dc.subject.keywordsInvestigationseng
dc.subject.keywordsAnalysiseng
dc.subject.keywordsModeling and simulationeng
dc.subject.keywordsMechatronic designeng
dc.subject.keywordsVertebraeeng
dc.identifier.instnameinstname:Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga - UNABspa
dc.identifier.reponamereponame:Repositorio Institucional UNABspa
dc.type.hasversioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion
dc.rights.accessrightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessspa
dc.rights.accessrightshttp://purl.org/coar/access_right/c_abf2spa
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dc.contributor.cvlachttps://scienti.minciencias.gov.co/cvlac/visualizador/generarCurriculoCv.do?cod_rh=0000295523*
dc.contributor.googlescholarhttps://scholar.google.es/citations?hl=es&user=xXcp5HcAAAAJ*
dc.contributor.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1079-9798*
dc.contributor.scopushttps://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=24333336800*
dc.contributor.researchgatehttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sebastian_Roa-Prada*
dc.subject.lembIngeniería mecatrónicaspa
dc.subject.lemb Métodos de elementos finitosspa
dc.subject.lembInvestigacionesspa
dc.subject.lembAnálisisspa
dc.description.abstractenglishThe vertebrae and intervertebral discs allow the flexibility of the spine and act as shock absorbers during daily activities, given the high incidence of back injuries, the idea of ​​creating a support tool for medicine and physiotherapy was born, which would serve as a guide model for diagnosing lumbar injuries. Through finite element analysis according to specific loads and a determined posture, the behavior of the lumbar vertebrae can be analyzed and thus an injury can be predicted.eng
dc.subject.proposalModelado y simulaciónspa
dc.subject.proposalDiseño mecatrónicospa
dc.subject.proposalVértebrasspa
dc.type.redcolhttp://purl.org/redcol/resource_type/TP
dc.rights.creativecommonsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 2.5 Colombia*


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